The term spondylolisthesis comes from the Greek words spondylo- (“vertebrae”) and -listhesis (“to slide on an incline”).

Spondylolisthesis commonly occurs in the lower back, which bears more weight and frequently experiences more twisting. Therefore, this condition is more prevalent in athletes and those who exercise excessively.


  • Degeneration
  • Fractures
  • Congenital Defect
  • Tumors


  • Mechanical: low back pain
  • Compressive: radiating nerve pain


Spondylolisthesis is often discovered on x-ray, as you may not even be experiencing symptoms of pain or discomfort. The x-ray will determine a grade of slippage:

  • Grade 1: 0–25%
  • Grade 2: 25–50%
  • Grade 3: 50–75%
  • Grade 4: 75–100%
  • Grade 5: Over 100% (the vertebra completely falls off the supporting vertebra – spondyloptosis)


Depending on the degree of slippage and resulting symptoms, your doctor may suggest physical therapy and/or medications. Surgery is only recommended if those conservative treatments do not alleviate pain. A laminectomy can relieve nerve pressure and a fusion may be indicated to improve spinal stability.